|Because wood is a natural material it responds to its environment and some shrinking and swelling is to be expected. However, in order to prevent damage to your solid wood furniture it is essential to control the humidity and dryness in your home.|
How to Protect Your Solid Wood Furniture in Every Season
February 19, 2018 | Posted By Dee Jones | By Beth Rice DutchCrafters
A top concern for protecting solid wood furniture is managing the humidity and dryness that can affect it. Wood is a natural material that responds to its environment and some shrinking and swelling is to be expected. However, controlling the humidity and dryness is essential for preventing damage.
Furniture damaged by unmanaged climate control is not due to a defect in the product. Perfectly crafted solid wood furniture can crack if subjected to harsh enough conditions, making this an important point to share in order to protect your solid wood furniture investment.
The Movement of Wood
Here’s the long and short of it. The moisture content of wood changes in response to relative humidity. When the air is humid, the wood absorbs moisture and swells. When the air is dry, wood loses moisture and shrinks. Excessive shrinking or swelling can affect the look of the wood or possibly cause cracks or splitting.
For example, breadboard ends for tables do not expand the same way as the main panel because of opposite grain directions, therefore creating an offset between the panel and breadboards. If the main panel extends beyond the breadboard, it has expanded. If the breadboard extends beyond the main panel, the piece has contracted. This is a normal occurrence and will shift between seasons.
Some furniture has built-in features to allow wood movement without causing damage. Plywood back panels on case goods allow the piece to move without breaking.
EMCs and Relative Humidity
According to Carl A. Eckelman in his book The Shrinking and Swelling of Wood and Its Effect on Furniture, EMC stands for the concept of Equilibrium Moisture Content, which means that the moisture content of wood will come into equilibrium with the relative humidity of the air around it. For each level of relative humidity of the air, there is a matching equilibrium moisture content of wood. The most commonly used woods have EMC values that are similar enough that one set of values can be used for them.
‘Tis the Season
Climate and the change of seasons mean different things in different parts of the country. With southern states being hot and humid and northern states cold and dry in winter, the EMC can be too low or too high. Shrinking and swelling occur in direct proportion to changes in moisture content, and moisture content changes of only a few percent are enough to cause significant movement of the wood.
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